The academic, economic and societal impacts of Open Access: an evidence-based review

Authors: Jonathan P. Tennant, François Waldner, Damien C. Jacques, Paola Masuzzo, Lauren B. Collister, Chris. H. J. Hartgerink

Abstract: Ongoing debates surrounding Open Access to the scholarly literature are multifaceted and complicated by disparate and often polarised viewpoints from engaged stakeholders. At the current stage, Open Access has become such a global issue that it is critical for all involved in scholarly publishing, including policymakers, publishers, research funders, governments, learned societies, librarians, and academic communities, to be well-informed on the history, benefits, and pitfalls of Open Access. In spite of this, there is a general lack of consensus regarding the potential pros and cons of Open Access at multiple levels. This review aims to be a resource for current knowledge on the impacts of Open Access by synthesizing important research in three major areas: academic, economic and societal. While there is clearly much scope for additional research, several key trends are identified, including a broad citation advantage for researchers who publish openly, as well as additional benefits to the non-academic dissemination of their work. The economic impact of Open Access is less well-understood, although it is clear that access to the research literature is key for innovative enterprises, and a range of governmental and non-governmental services. Furthermore, Open Access has the potential to save both publishers and research funders considerable amounts of financial resources, and can provide some economic benefits to traditionally subscription-based journals. The societal impact of Open Access is strong, in particular for advancing citizen science initiatives, and leveling the playing field for researchers in developing countries. Open Access supersedes all potential alternative modes of access to the scholarly literature through enabling unrestricted re-use, and long-term stability independent of financial constraints of traditional publishers that impede knowledge sharing. However, Open Access has the potential to become unsustainable for research communities if high-cost options are allowed to continue to prevail in a widely unregulated scholarly publishing market. Open Access remains only one of the multiple challenges that the scholarly publishing system is currently facing. Yet, it provides one foundation for increasing engagement with researchers regarding ethical standards of publishing and the broader implications of ‘Open Research’.

Citation: Tennant JP, Waldner F, Jacques DC et al. The academic, economic and societal impacts of Open Access: an evidence-based review [version 3; referees: 3 approved, 2 approved with reservations]F1000Research 2016, 5:632 (doi: 10.12688/f1000research.8460.3)

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Research Access and Discovery in University News Releases: A Case Study

Author: Philip Young

Abstract: INTRODUCTION Many universities promote the peer-reviewed articles of their researchers in online news releases. However, access to the articles by the public can be limited, and information for locating articles is sometimes lacking. This exploratory study quantifies article access, the potential for immediate article archiving, and the presence of discovery aids in news releases at a large research university. METHODS A random sample of 120 news releases over an 11-year period were evaluated. RESULTS At publication, 33% of the peer-reviewed articles mentioned in news releases were open access. Immediate archiving in the institutional repository could potentially raise the access rate to 58% of the articles. Discovery aids in news releases included journal titles (96%), hyperlinks (67%), article titles (44%), and full citations (3%). No hyperlink was in the form of a referenceable digital object identifier (DOI). DISCUSSION Article availability is greater than published estimates, and could result from the university’s STEM focus or self-selection. Delayed access by journals is a significant source of availability, and provides an additional rationale for hyperlinking from news releases. CONCLUSION Most articles promoted in the university’s news releases cannot be accessed by the public. Access could be significantly increased through immediate archiving in the institutional repository. Opportunities for facilitating article discovery could increase the credibility and outreach value of news releases. Published on 2017-02-27 18:35:56

Citation: Young, P., (2017). Research Access and Discovery in University News Releases: A Case Study. Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication. 5(1), p.eP2155. DOI: http://doi.org/10.7710/2162-3309.2155

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Laying the Groundwork for a New Library Service: Scholar-Practitioner & Graduate Student Attitudes Toward Altmetrics and the Curation of Online Profiles

Authors: Kathleen Reed, Dana McFarland, Rosie Croft

Abstract: Objective – In order to inform a library service related to creating and maintaining online scholarly profiles, we sought to assess the knowledge base and needs of our academic communities. Participants were queried about use, issues, and attitudes toward scholarly profile and altmetric tools, as well as the role librarians could play in assisting with the curation of online reputation. Methods – Semi-structured interviews with 18 scholar-practitioners and 5 graduate students from two mid-sized universities.

Citation: Reed, K. McFarland, D. Croft, R. (2016). Laying the Groundwork for a New Library Service: Scholar-Practitioner & Graduate Student Attitudes Toward Altmetrics and the Curation of Online Profiles. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice. 11(2) 87-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.18438/B8J047

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Medici 2: A Scalable Content Management System for Cultural Heritage Datasets

Authors: Constantinos Sophocleous, Luigi Marini, Ropertos Georgiou, Mohammed Elfarargy, and Kenton McHenry

Abstract: Digitizing large collections of Cultural Heritage (CH) resources and providing tools for their management, analysis and visualization is critical to CH research. A key element in achieving the above goal is to provide user-friendly software offering an abstract interface for interaction with a variety of digital content types. To address these needs, the Medici content management system is being developed in a collaborative effort between the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Bibliotheca Alexandrina (BA) in Egypt, and the Cyprus Institute (CyI). The project is pursued in the framework of European Project “Linking Scientific Computing in Europe and Eastern Mediterranean 2” (LinkSCEEM2) and supported by work funded through the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), the U.S. National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), the U.S. Office of Naval Research (ONR), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well as other private sector efforts.

Medici is a Web 2.0 environment integrating analysis tools for the auto-curation of un-curated digital data, allowing automatic processing of input (CH) datasets, and visualization of both data and collections. It offers a simple user interface for dataset preprocessing, previewing, automatic metadata extraction, user input of metadata and provenance support, storage, archiving and management, representation and reproduction. Building on previous experience (Medici 1), NCSA, and CyI are working towards the improvement of the technical, performance and functionality aspects of the system. The current version of Medici (Medici 2) is the result of these efforts. It is a scalable, flexible, robust distributed framework with wide data format support (including 3D models and Reflectance Transformation Imaging-RTI) and metadata functionality. We provide an overview of Medici 2’s current features supported by representative use cases as well as a discussion of future development directions

Citation: Constantinos Sophocleous, Luigi Marini, Ropertos Georgiou, Mohammed Elfarargy, and Kenton McHenry. (2017). Medici 2: A Scalable Content Management System for Cultural Heritage Datasets. Code4Lib Journal, Issue 36.

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Bringing together the work of subscription and open access specialists: challenges and changes at the University of Sussex

Authors: Craig, E., & Webb, H.

Abstract: In common with the majority of UK universities, the last few years have seen the University of Sussex Library staff adapting to changes in workflows and procedures due to the increase in time and effort required to support open access (OA) publishing. [The University of Sussex has] recently started evaluating workflows and identifying ways of sharing knowledge within the Library to ensure that OA is considered, where appropriate, in the subscriptions workflow.

Citation: Craig, E., & Webb, H. (2017). Bringing together the work of subscription and open access specialists: challenges and changes at the University of Sussex. Insights, 30(1), 31–37. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1629/uksg.337

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