Mashups and Matters of Concern: Generative Approaches to Digital Collections

Author: Mitchell Whitelaw

Abstract: This article discusses two practical experiments in remaking collections. Drifter (2016) and Succession (2014) build on the affordances of machine-readable collections and APIs to harvest large datasets from diverse sources, and show how these sources can be re-deployed to address complex spatiotemporal sites. These projects demonstrate the potential of a mashup-like generative approach based on sampling and recombination. Such approaches generate an expansive range of unforeseeable outcomes, while retaining a highly authored character. Here these projects are analysed through three key constituents: the troublesome trace of data; their extraction of digital samples; and their generative recomposition of samples into emergent outcomes. These techniques remake collections in a way that addresses the intrinsically complex, entangled and heterogeneous nature of what Latour terms ‘matters of concern’.

Citation: Whitelaw, M. (2018). Mashups and Matters of Concern: Generative Approaches to Digital Collections . Open Library of Humanities, 4(1), 26. DOI: http://doi.org/10.16995/olh.291

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Source: Mashups and Matters of Concern: Generative Approaches to Digital Collections

Open access in ethics research: an analysis of open access availability and author self-archiving behaviour in light of journal copyright restrictions

Authors: Mikael Laakso, Andrea Polonioli

Abstract: The current state of open access to journal publications within research areas belonging to the humanities has received relatively little research attention. This study provides a detailed mapping of the bibliometric state of open access to journal publications among ethicists, taking into account not only open access publishing in journals directly, but also where and in what form ethicists make their journal articles available elsewhere on the web. As part of the study 297 ethicists affiliated with top-ranking philosophy departments were identified and their journal publication information for the years 2010–2015 were recorded (1682 unique articles). The journal articles were then queried for through Google Scholar in order to establish open access status (web locations, document versions) of each publication record. Publication records belonging to the 20 most frequently used journal outlets (subset of 597 unique articles) were put under closer inspection with regards to alignment with publisher copyright restrictions as well as measuring unused potential to share articles. The results show that slightly over half of recent journal publications are available to read for free. PhilPapers and academic social networks (Academia.edu and ResearchGate) were found to be key platforms for research dissemination in ethics research. The representation of institutional repositories as providers of access was found to be weak, receiving the second lowest frequency rating among the eight discrete web location categories. Further, the study reveals that ethicists are at the same time prone to copyright infringement and undersharing their scholarly work.

Citation: Laakso, M., & Polonioli, A. (2018) Open access in ethics research: an analysis of open access availability and author self-archiving behaviour in light of journal copyright restrictions. Scientometrics, 1-27. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-018-2751-5 

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Source: Scientometrics

Shadow Libraries

Editor: Joe Karaganis

Authors: Balázs Bodó, Laura Czerniewicz, Miroslaw Filiciak, Mariana Fossatti, Jorge Gemetto, Eve Gray, Evelin Heidel, Joe Karaganis, Lawrence Liang, Pedro Mizukami, Jhessica Reia, Alek Tarkowski

Abstract: Even as middle- and low-income countries expand their higher education systems, their governments are retreating from responsibility for funding and managing this expansion. The public provision of educational materials in these contexts is rare; instead, libraries, faculty, and students are on their own to get what they need. Shadow Libraries explores the new ecosystem of access, charting the flow of educational and research materials from authors to publishers to libraries to students, and from comparatively rich universities to poorer ones. In countries from Russia to Brazil, the weakness of formal models of access was countered by the growth of informal ones. By the early 2000s, the principal form of access to materials was informal copying and sharing. Since then, such unauthorized archives as Libgen, Gigapedia, and Sci-Hub have become global “shadow libraries,” with massive aggregations of downloadable scholarly materials.

The chapters consider experiments with access in a range of middle- and low-income countries, describing, among other things, the Russian samizdat tradition and the connection of illicit copying to resistance to oppression; BiblioFyL, an online archive built by students at the University of Buenos Aires; education policy and the daily practices of students in post-Apartheid South Africa; the politics of access in India; and copy culture in Brazil.

Citation: Karaganis, J (Ed.). (2018). Shadow Libraries. Access to Knowledge in Higher Education. Boston, MA: MIT Press.

Source: MIT Press

Linking impact factor to ‘open access’ charges creates more inequality in academic publishing

Authors: Jeroen Bosman, Bianca Kramer

Abstract: Simply adding an ‘open access’ option to the existing prestige-based journal system at ever increasing costs is not the fundamental change publishing needs.

Citation:  J. Bosman and B. Kramer (2018). “Linking impact factor to ‘open access’ charges creates more inequality in academic publishing.”  Times Higher Education blog. May 16, 2018.  Retrieved from https://www.timeshighereducation.com/blog/linking-impact-factor-open-access-charges-creates-more-inequality-academic-publishing

Source: Times Higher Education blog

Empowerment, Experimentation, Engagement: Embracing Partnership Models in Libraries

Authors: Brian Mathews, Stefanie Metko, and Patrick Tomlin

Abstract: Shifting from a transactional model to partnership models, libraries are repositioning themselves as laboratories for exploration, incubators for ideas, and essential collaborators across the teaching, learning, and research enterprises.

What relationship do we want learners to have with their library? This is an essential question for those of us who work as library faculty and staff in higher education. As the information landscape becomes increasingly diverse, complex, and digital, we need to consider the different roles that libraries are embracing. From makerspaces and digital scholarship centers to open-access initiatives, digital library projects, and literacy education, academic and research libraries are engaging with communities in ways like never before.

Citation:  B. Mathews, S. Metko, and P. Tomlin (2018). Empowerment, Experimentation, Engagement: Embracing Partnership Models in Libraries. EDUCAUSE Review 53, no. 3 (May/June 2018). Retrieved from https://er.educause.edu/articles/2018/5/empowerment-experimentation-engagement-embracing-partnership-models-in-libraries.

Source: EDUCAUSE Review

The BCcampus Open Education Self-Publishing Guide

Author: Lauri M. Aesoph

Abstract: The BCcampus Open Education Self-Publishing Guide is a reference for individuals or groups wanting to write and self-publish an open textbook. This guide provides details on the preparation, planning, writing, publication, and maintenance of an open textbook.

Citation: Aesoph, L.M. (2018). Self-Publishing Guide. Victoria, BC: BCcampus. Retrieved from https://opentextbc.ca/selfpublishguide/

Source: The BCcampus Open Education Self-Publishing Guide

Wikidata: a platform for your library’s linked open data

Authors: Stacy Allison-Cassin, Dan Scott

Abstract: This article describes and reflects on some of the ways the authors have used Wikidata as a low-barrier method for creating and using LOD in libraries. The platform enables libraries and other GLAM organizations to easily publish LOD for collections and content. There are many pathways to get involved in the Wikidata community. Creating and editing Wikidata can begin with choosing a thematic area related to a collection of interest or group of scholars or individuals. By actively contributing data, creating applications participating in community initiatives and creating documentation libraries can help to improve the quality, impact and sustainability of the platform for libraries.

Citation: Allison-Cassin, S. and Scott, D. (2018). Wikidata: a platform for your library’s linked open data. Code4Lib Journal. Retrieved from http://journal.code4lib.org/articles/13424.

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Source: Code4Lib Journal

Reproducible research in linguistics: A position statement on data citation and attribution in our field

Authors: Andrea L. Berez-Kroeker, Lauren Gawne, Susan Smythe Kung, Barbara F. Kelly, Tyler Heston, Gary Holton, Peter Pulsifer, David I. Beaver, Shobhana Chelliah, Stanley Dubinsky, Richard P. Meier, Nick Thieberger, Keren Rice and Anthony C. Woodbury

Abstract: This paper is a position statement on reproducible research in linguistics, including data citation and attribution, that represents the collective views of some 41 colleagues. Reproducibility can play a key role in increasing verification and accountability in linguistic research, and is a hallmark of social science research that is currently under-represented in our field. We believe that we need to take time as a discipline to clearly articulate our expectations for how linguistic data are managed, cited, and maintained for long-term access.

Citation: Berez-Kroeker, A., Gawne, L., Kung, S., et al. (2017). Reproducible research in linguistics: A position statement on data citation and attribution in our field. Linguistics, 56(1), pp. 1-18. Retrieved 16 Apr. 2018, from doi:10.1515/ling-2017-0032

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Source: Reproducible research in linguistics: A position statement on data citation and attribution in our field

Can We Count on Social Media Metrics? First Insights into the Active Scholarly Use of Social Media

Authors: Maryam Mehrazar, Christoph Carl Kling, Steffen Lemke, Athanasios Mazarakis, Isabella Peters

Abstract: Measuring research impact is important for ranking publications in academic search engines and for research evaluation. Social media metrics or altmetrics measure the impact of scientific work based on social media activity. Altmetrics are complementary to traditional, citation-based metrics, e.g. allowing the assessment of new publications for which citations are not yet available. Despite the increasing importance of altmetrics, their characteristics are not well understood: Until now it has not been researched what kind of researchers are actively using which social media services and why – important questions for scientific impact prediction. Based on a survey among 3,430 scientists, we uncover previously unknown and significant differences between social media services: We identify services which attract young and experienced researchers, respectively, and detect differences in usage motivations. Our findings have direct implications for the future design of altmetrics for scientific impact prediction.

Citation: Mehrazar, M. et al., (2018). Can We Count on Social Media Metrics? First Insights into the Active Scholarly Use of Social Media. ArXiv. https://arxiv.org/abs/1804.02751.

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Source: ArXiv

Analyzing Citation and Research Collaboration Characteristics of Faculty in Aerospace, Civil and Environmental, Electrical and Computer, and Mechanical Engineering

Author: Li Zhang

Abstract: This article investigates citation and research collaboration habits of faculty in four engineering departments. The analysis focuses on similarities and differences among the engineering disciplines. Main differences exist in the use of conference papers and technical reports. The age of cited materials varies by discipline and by format. Regarding faculty connection with other subjects, the study finds that aerospace and mechanical engineering faculty collaborate more often with researchers outside their fields, while civil and environmental faculty, as well as electrical and computer engineering faculty, are more likely to cooperate with peers in their fields. Lists of highly cited journals are generated. The paper also provides suggestions for collection management, research assistance, and outreach efforts.

Citation: Zhang, Li. (2018). Analyzing Citation and Research Collaboration Characteristics of Faculty in Aerospace, Civil and Environmental, Electrical and Computer, and Mechanical Engineering. College & Research Libraries News, 79(2), 158. doi: 10.5860/crl.79.2.158

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Source: College & Research Libraries News