The research life cycle and the health sciences librarian: responding to change in scholarly communication

Authors: Andrea M. Ketchum

Abstract: The Internet and digital technologies have profoundly affected scholarly communication, publishing, collaborative research, literature searches, and management of digital assets and data. In turn, our views of the research life cycle have changed. What does this mean for librarians in the health sciences who support or even actively participate in clinical research?

Citation: Ketchum AM. The research life cycle and the health sciences librarian: responding to change in scholarly communication. Journal of the Medical Library Association : JMLA. 2017;105(1):80-83. doi:10.5195/jmla.2017.110.

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Source: Journal of the Medical Library Association

Redistributing Data Worlds: Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Democracy

Author: Jonathan Gray

Abstract: Open data, defined as a set of ideas and conventions that transform information into a reusable public resource, is promoted for various purposes: to improve the transparency of public institutions, to create projects that strengthen democracy, to stimulate economic growth. The social and technical infrastructures that support open data recompose the “worlds of data”: new social collectives are formed, new practices creating meaning appear. Transnational political initiatives are emerging. Far from being a simple “release” of data, it does not go without translation, mediation, and new social practices. But can this movement serve as a basis for a richer democratic deliberation, or is it destined to socially institutionalize various forms of bureaucratization and commodification?

Citation: Gray, Jonathan, Redistributing Data Worlds: Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Democracy (Quand les mondes de données sont redistribués: Open Data, infrastructures de données et démocratie) (August 1, 2017). Gray, J. (2017). Quand les mondes de données sont redistribués: Open Data, infrastructures de données et démocratie. Statistique et Société, 5(3), 29–34.. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3111720

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Source: SSRN

Understanding the needs of scholars in a contemporary publishing environment: Survey results

Authors: PWW Research Team

Abstract: Publishing Without Walls (PWW) is a Mellon-funded initiative at the University of Illinois led by the University Library in partnership with the School of Information Sciences, the department of African American Studies, and the Illinois Program for Research in the Humanities. Our project is developing a scalable, sustainable model for library-based digital scholarly publishing. The model aims to lower publishing barriers – both for scholars new to digital publishing and for institutions with limited resources – while opening publications to the widest possible readership. With a goal of broad adoption in academic libraries, our model locates the humanities scholar at the center of the scholarly communication ecosystem and affords services that are informed by and responsive to scholarly needs. The research guiding development of this model aims to identify and explore perceived gaps in the current publishing system, including the gap between what and how scholars want to publish and what existing systems accommodate; the gap between the everyday practices of humanities scholars and tools for producing and supporting digital scholarship; and the gap between digital scholarship and publishing opportunities at resource-rich institutions and resource-limited institutions, especially Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). This report gives the results of one piece of an ongoing, multimodal research effort. Through a large-scale survey and a series of interviews with humanities scholars, this effort aims to lay a solid foundation of understanding about scholarly needs in the contemporary publishing environment. This report explains the survey method, gives a summary of participants’ self-reported demographics, and details survey results, proceeding question by question. The goal of this report is not to provide interpretation of the meaning or significance of survey results, but to document the results themselves as a foundation for future interpretation, and for informing ongoing research and development of the publishing service model.

Citation: PWW Research Team. (2017). Understanding the needs of scholars in a contemporary publishing environment: Survey report, Publishing Without Walls: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.  http://hdl.handle.net/2142/98576

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Source: Understanding the needs of scholars in a contemporary publishing environment: Survey results

Digital Publishing: A Home for Faculty in the Library — Exercises in Innovation from Harvard Law School

Authors: DeMarco, Claire Amy; Courtney, Kyle K.

Abstract: As libraries continue transforming through the digital age, we are faced with a familiar opportunity for renewal: the deepening of the faculty-library relationship — this time in a digital framework. Instead of simply complementing analog disciplines with digital counterparts, a broader medium of “digital scholarship” is rapidly expanding among and across all disciplines. Like any rapid expansion, there is no one clear path. Hundreds of platforms are vying for prominence in the digital scholarship space; commercial publishers are developing, enhancing, and re-branding online portals to meet this demand. Rather than coping with that uncertainty, however, or formatting their work to fit a standard, commercial digital mold, many faculty are turning to trusted sources: librarians. Faculty are seeking guidance, support, and resources to meet their digital scholarship needs, meaning libraries are presently in a position to become the place where — and the partner through which — faculty create, manage, and store digital scholarship placing libraries in the position of digital publisher.

In recent years, commercial publishers have positioned themselves to transition traditional print journals and monographs to e-publishing platforms aimed at merely replicating the print experience. Ongoing management of those platforms, along with development of licensing and payment structures, have likewise attempted to replicate the print experience. Debate has surrounded library ownership of electronic resources, and the divorce of licensed content from traditional modes of print ownership has been, and continues to be, an area bereft of clarity and mired in controversy.

This current opportunity is more than a mere transition, however, it is an expansion – a broadening of our understanding of scholarship, not to simply replace print with digital, but to encourage and understand the opportunities of the digital environment as a new medium for faculty. As we face this evolution from replicating print in a digital environment, to authoring and creating within a digital framework, libraries must be assertive in taking on the challenges of developing a home for this content and become comfortable with digital publishing as a core library function.

This article highlights specific examples of desire by faculty at Harvard Law School to push legal scholarship beyond the constraints of traditional commercial publishing. Harvard Law School Library, like any other academic library, is navigating the expansion of scholarly formats to the digital realm, as well as the demand by faculty to support new, and evolving, approaches to scholarship. Analysis of these examples will focus on the unique role that the library has in stimulating, supporting, and sustaining, faculty publishing efforts, in addition to the challenges presented by the new, and potentially uncomfortable, proposition of library as a digital publisher.

Citation: DeMarco, Claire & Kyle Courtney. 2017. Digital Publishing: A Home for Faculty in the Library — Exercises in Innovation from Harvard Law School. Working Paper. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:34864118

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Source: Dash at Harvard

Practices of research data curation in institutional repositories: A qualitative view from repository staff

Authors: Dong Joon Lee, Besiki Stvilia

Abstract: The importance of managing research data has been emphasized by the government, funding agencies, and scholarly communities. Increased access to research data increases the impact and efficiency of scientific activities and funding. Thus, many research institutions have established or plan to establish research data curation services as part of their Institutional Repositories (IRs). However, in order to design effective research data curation services in IRs, and to build active research data providers and user communities around those IRs, it is essential to study current data curation practices and provide rich descriptions of the sociotechnical factors and relationships shaping those practices. Based on 13 interviews with 15 IR staff members from 13 large research universities in the United States, this paper provides a rich, qualitative description of research data curation and use practices in IRs. In particular, the paper identifies data curation and use activities in IRs, as well as their structures, roles played, skills needed, contradictions and problems present, solutions sought, and workarounds applied. The paper can inform the development of best practice guides, infrastructure and service templates, as well as education in research data curation in Library and Information Science (LIS) schools.

Citation: Lee DJ, Stvilia B (2017) Practices of research data curation in institutional repositories: A qualitative view from repository staff. PLoS ONE 12(3): e0173987. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0173987

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Source: PLoS ONE

Faculty Attitudes toward Open Access and Scholarly Communications: Disciplinary Differences on an Urban and Health Science Campus

Author: Odell, J., Palmer, K. & Dill, E.

Abstract: Access to scholarship in the health sciences has greatly increased in the last decade. The adoption of the 2008 U.S. National Institutes of Health Public Access Policy and the launch of successful open access journals in health sciences have done much to move the exchange of scholarship beyond the subscription-only model. One might assume, therefore, that scholars publishing in the health sciences would be more supportive of these changes. However, the results of this survey of attitudes on a campus with a large medical faculty show that health science respondents were uncertain of the value of recent changes in the scholarly communication system.

Citation: Odell, J., Palmer, K. & Dill, E., (2017). Faculty Attitudes toward Open Access and Scholarly Communications: Disciplinary Differences on an Urban and Health Science Campus. Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication. 5(1). DOI: http://doi.org/10.7710/2162-3309.2169

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Source: Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication

Openness as Tool for Acceleration and Measurement: Reflections on Problem Representations Underpinning Open Access and Open Science

Author: Jutta Heider

Abstract: Increasingly open access emerges as an issue that researchers, universities, and various infrastructure providers, such as libraries and academic publishers, have to relate to. Commonly policies requiring open access are framed as expanding access to information and hence as being part of a democratization of society and knowledge production processes. However, there are also other aspects that are part of the way in which open access is commonly imagined in the various policy documents, declarations, and institutional demands that often go unnoticed. This essay wants to foreground some of these issues by asking the overarching question: “What is the problem that open access is seen to solve represented to be?” The paper will discuss how demands to open up access to research align also with an administrative enclosure and managerial processes of control and evaluation. It will show that while demands for free and open access to research publications – created or compiled in research processes funded by public money – are seen as contributing to the knowledge base for advancing society for a common good and in that sense framed as part of a liberating discourse, these demands are also expression of a shift of control of the science community to invisible research infrastructures and to an apparatus of administration as well as subscribing to an ideal of entrepreneurialism as well as continuing a problematic and much criticized understanding of Western science as universal.

Citation: Haider, J. (2017). “Openness as Tool for Acceleration and Measurement: Reflections on Problem Representations Underpinning Open Access and Open Science.” In U. Herb, & J. Schöpfel (Eds.), Open Divide?: Critical Studies on Open Access Sacramento, CA: Litwin Books.

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Integrating the IR into strategic goals at the University of Toledo: a case study

FILE: /main/production/doc/data/assets/site/article_pager.inc
FILE: /main/production/doc/data/assets/site/ir_series/article/index.html (cont) Authors: Sabharwal, A., & Natal, G.
FILE: /main/production/doc/data/assets/site/topnav.inc Not Used FILE: /main/production/doc/data/assets/site/ir_series/article/index.html (cont) FILE: /main/production/doc/data/assets/site/ir_series/article/article_info.inc FILE: /main/production/doc/data/assets/site/openurl.inc Abstract:  Purpose – The purpose of this case study is to demonstrate a current model, as well as explore future models, for integrating institutional repositories (IRs) in higher education goals at the University of Toledo. Design/methodology/approach – This is a case study that uses literature review as an exploratory framework for new approaches while reflecting on existing literature to present the current practical framework for using IRs. Findings – The digital environment has pushed academic institutions toward new strategies for curating their record on scholarship and preserving their heritage collections, using their IRs. Innovative approaches are also vital to curating the IR content digitally to facilitate access to those contents in ways that was not possible a few decades ago. Surveys and existing literature point to increasing uses of IRs despite abstinence from considering open access for scholarly activity among faculty concerned about copyright, plagiarism and sustainability. Staffing and funding IR initiatives are important factors in sustaining the curation of scholarship in the digital environment. Practical implications – IRs with open access publishing, expert gallery and digital library features place academic libraries in a central role as partners in digital scholarship. Originality/value – This case study presents an original approach to incorporating the IR into the curation of digital content while also considering potential uses of knowledge management approaches for data and knowledge sharing in an academic environment.
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Citation: Sabharwal, A., & Natal, G. (2017). Integrating the IR into strategic goals at the University of Toledo: case study. Digital Library Perspectives, 339–360. https://doi.org/10.1108/DLP-03-2017-0008. Available at http://utdr.utoledo.edu/library-research/21/
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Source: Integrating the IR into strategic goals at the University of Toledo: a case study

An Evidence-Based Review of Academic Web Search Engines, 2014-2016: Implications for Librarians’ Practice and Research Agenda

Author: Fagan, Jody Condit

Abstract: Academic web search engines have become central to scholarly research. While the fitness of Google Scholar for research purposes has been examined repeatedly, Microsoft Academic and Google Books have not received much attention. Recent studies have much to tell us about the coverage and utility of Google Scholar, its coverage of the sciences, and its utility for evaluating researcher impact. But other aspects have been woefully understudied, such as coverage of the arts and humanities, books, and non-Western, non-English publications. User research has also tapered off. A small number of articles hint at the opportunity for librarians to become expert advisors concerning opportunities of scholarly communication made possible or enhanced by these platforms. This article seeks to summarize research concerning Google Scholar, Google Books, and Microsoft Academic from the past three years with a mind to informing practice and setting a research agenda. Selected literature from earlier time periods is included to illuminate key findings and to help shape the proposed research agenda, especially in understudied areas.

Citation: Fagan, Jody Condit. “An Evidence-Based Review of Academic Web Search Engines, 2014-2016: Implications for Librarians’ Practice and Research Agenda.” Information Technology and Libraries 36(2), 2017. DOI: 10.6017/ital.v36i2.9718

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Source: An Evidence-Based Review of Academic Web Search Engines, 2014-2016: Implications for Librarians’ Practice and Research Agenda

Designing Digital Scholarship Ecologies

Author: Micah Vandegrift

Abstract: Digital Scholarship and Scholarly Communication are transforming the practice of librarianship by 1) integrating throughout the research process, 2) re-positioning the core of libraries, 3) increasing focus on “back of the house” processes/skills, 4) facilitating an outward orientation. Approaching these through the frames of design and ecology offer a useful re-imagining of our current state and possible futures.

Citation: Vandegrift, Micah, 2018. “Designing Digital Scholarship Ecologies”. LIS Scholarship Archive. January 18. osf.io/preprints/lissa/93zvb.

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Source: LIS Scholarship Archive