We took a peek at the statistics for 2018, and below is the peer-nominated research you were most interested in reading last year. From OER to LOD to RDM, identifiers to institutional repositories, collaboration to copyright to community-owned infrastructure, the scholarship you read most ran the gamut of the evolving scholcomm syllabus. We were particularly happy to see Charlotte Roh and Harrison Inefuku’s Agents of Diversity and Social Justice: Librarians and Scholarly Communication make the top ten (thank you to Camille Thomas for nominating it)—may 2019 continue to bring (and continue to celebrate) more critical, more engaged, and more diverse perspectives to scholarly communication writ large!
THE IMPACT OF OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON VARIOUS STUDENT SUCCESS METRICS by Nicholas Colvard, C. Edward Watson, and Hyojin Park http://www.isetl.org/ijtlhe/pdf/IJTLHE3386.pdf
There are multiple indicators which suggest that completion, quality, and affordability are the three greatest challenges for higher education today in terms of students, student learning, and student success. Many colleges, universities, and state systems are seeking to adopt a portfolio of solutions that address these challenges. This article reports the results of a large-scale study (21,822 students) regarding the impact of course-level faculty adoption of Open Educational Resources (OER). Results indicate that OER adoption does much more than simply save students money and address student debt concerns. OER improve end-of-course grades and decrease DFW (D, F, and Withdrawal letter grades) rates for all students. They also improve course grades at greater rates and decrease DFW rates at greater rates for Pell recipient students, part-time students, and populations historically underserved by higher education. OER address affordability, completion, attainment gap concerns, and learning. These findings contribute to a broadening perception of the value of OERs and their relevance to the great challenges facing higher education today.
USING ORCID, DOI, AND OTHER OPEN IDENTIFIERS IN RESEARCH EVALUATION by Laurel L. Haak, Alice Meadows, and Josh Brown https://doi.org/10.3389/frma.2018.00028
An evaluator’s task is to connect the dots between program goals and its outcomes. This can be accomplished through surveys, research, and interviews, and is frequently performed post hoc. Research evaluation is hampered by a lack of data that clearly connect a research program with its outcomes and, in particular, by ambiguity about who has participated in the program and what contributions they have made. Manually making these connections is very labor-intensive, and algorithmic matching introduces errors and assumptions that can distort results. In this paper, we discuss the use of identifiers in research evaluation—for individuals, their contributions, and the organizations that sponsor them and fund their work. Global identifier systems are uniquely positioned to capture global mobility and collaboration. By leveraging connections between local infrastructures and global information resources, evaluators can map data sources that were previously either unavailable or prohibitively labor-intensive. We describe how identifiers, such as ORCID iDs and DOIs, are being embedded in research workflows across science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics; how this is affecting data availability for evaluation purposes: and provide examples of evaluations that are leveraging identifiers. We also discuss the importance of provenance and preservation in establishing confidence in the reliability and trustworthiness of data and relationships, and in the long-term availability of metadata describing objects and their inter-relationships. We conclude with a discussion on opportunities and risks for the use of identifiers in evaluation processes.
SCALING RESEARCH DATA MANAGEMENT SERVICES ALONG THE MATURITY SPECTRUM: THREE INSTITUTIONAL PERSPECTIVES by Cinthya Ippoliti, Amy Koshoffer, Renaine Julian, Micah Vandegrift, Devin Soper, and Sophie Meridien https://dx.doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/WZ8FN
Research data services promise to advance many academic libraries’ strategic goals of becoming partners in the research process and integrating library services with modern research workflows. Academic librarians are well positioned to make an impact in this space due to their expertise in managing, curating, and preserving digital information, and a history of engaging with scholarly communications writ large. Some academic libraries have quickly developed infrastructure and support for every activity ranging from data storage and curation to project management and collaboration, while others are just beginning to think about addressing the data needs of their researchers. Regardless of which end of the spectrum they identify with, libraries are still seeking to understand the research landscape and define their role in the process. This article seeks to blend both a general perspective regarding these issues with actual case studies derived from three institutions, University of Cincinnati, Oklahoma State University, and Florida State University, all of which are at different levels of implementation, maturity, and campus involvement.
THE SKY’S THE LIMIT: SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION, DIGITAL INITIATIVES, INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORIES, AND SUBJECT LIBRARIANS by Sarah A. Norris, Lee Dotson, Barbara Tierney, Richard H. Harrison II http://dx.doi.org/10.5703/1288284316486
The University of Central Florida’s institutional repository, Showcase of Text, Archives, Research, and Scholarship (STARS), has presented new opportunities for collaboration among the Libraries’ Office of Scholarly Communication, Digital Initiatives, Research Services, and subject librarians. Building on efforts to proactively promote scholarly communication initiatives to the university community, these four units have used the institutional repository as a foundation for collaboration, outreach, marketing, and educational efforts. This article will give an overview of a panel presentation given by members of these four units on STARS and highlight the role the institutional repository has in increasing the collaborative efforts of these four units. Additionally, it will highlight four different perspectives and discuss strategies designed to generate institutional repository interest from the university community. Successful ventures and lessons learned will provide insight into creating a productive interdepartmental framework that is geared toward supporting students and faculty institutional repository projects.
PRACTICES OF RESEARCH DATA CURATION IN INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORIES: A QUALITATIVE VIEW FROM REPOSITORY STAFF by Dong Joon Lee and Besiki Stviliahttps://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0173987
The importance of managing research data has been emphasized by the government, funding agencies, and scholarly communities. Increased access to research data increases the impact and efficiency of scientific activities and funding. Thus, many research institutions have established or plan to establish research data curation services as part of their Institutional Repositories (IRs). However, in order to design effective research data curation services in IRs, and to build active research data providers and user communities around those IRs, it is essential to study current data curation practices and provide rich descriptions of the sociotechnical factors and relationships shaping those practices. Based on 13 interviews with 15 IR staff members from 13 large research universities in the United States, this paper provides a rich, qualitative description of research data curation and use practices in IRs. In particular, the paper identifies data curation and use activities in IRs, as well as their structures, roles played, skills needed, contradictions and problems present, solutions sought, and workarounds applied. The paper can inform the development of best practice guides, infrastructure and service templates, as well as education in research data curation in Library and Information Science (LIS) schools.
A RESONANT MESSAGE: ALIGNING SCHOLAR VALUES AND OPEN ACCESS OBJECTIVES IN OA POLICY OUTREACH TO FACULTY AND GRADUATE STUDENTS by Jane Johnson Otto http://doi.org/10.7710/2162-3309.2152
Faculty contribution to the institutional repository is a major limiting factor in the successful provision of open access to scholarship, and thus to the advancement of research productivity and progress. Many have alluded to outreach messages through studies examining faculty concerns that underlie their reluctance to contribute, but specific open access messages demonstrated to resonate most with faculty have not been discussed with sufficient granularity. Indeed, many faculty benefits and concerns are likely either unknown to the faculty themselves, or unspoken, so the literature’s record of faculty benefits and perceptions of open access remains incomplete at best.
FROM WIKIDATA TO SCHOLIA: CREATING STRUCTURED LINKED DATA TO GENERATE SCHOLARLY PROFILES by Mairelys Lemus-Rojas and Jere Odellhttp://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/GXQ8D
Wikidata, the newest project of the Wikimedia Foundation, has been increasingly attracting contributors from all over the world. Wikidata is a free knowledge base that stores multilingual structured linked data. At the IUPUI University Library, we are working on a project where our goal is to provide a presence in Wikidata for our faculty members. As we will demonstrate, adding data about our faculty will enable us to generate scholarly profiles for them. For the pilot project, we selected 18 faculty members from the IU Lilly Family School of Philanthropy. The School of Philanthropy, located in the IUPUI campus, is the first school dedicated solely to philanthropy education and research. The school and its faculty also provide many widely used works of scholarship. We approached this project by using Wikidata as the repository for all the data associated with the faculty members. We created entries (namely Items in Wikidata) for the selected group of faculty, their co-authors, and all their published articles with DOIs. To create entries for the articles, we used a tool that allows users to enter either a DOI, PMID or PMCID and generates the Items directly in Wikidata. We then used Scholia, an open source application, to generate the scholarly profiles. Scholia queries Wikidata and presents the user with aggregated and graphically-displayed information. It also enables us, for example, to learn more about our faculty members’ collaborators and scholarly interests. In addition to demonstrating our methods for contributing content to a structured linked data knowledge base, this presentation will share the potential benefits and challenges for libraries to consider. Libraries have both the expertise and data sources to take a leading role in contributing to and promoting open knowledge projects for their communities.
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND COPYRIGHT by Andres Guadamuzhttps://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/wipo_magazine/en/pdf/2017/wipo_pub_121_2017_05.pdf
Robotic artists have been involved in various types of creative works for a long time. Since the 1970s computers have been producing crude works of art, and these efforts continue today. Most of these computer-generated works of art relied heavily on the creative input of the programmer; the machine was at most an instrument or a tool very much like a brush or canvas. But today, we are in the throes of a technological revolution that may require us to rethink the interaction between computers and the creative process. That revolution is underpinned by the rapid development of machine learning software, a subset of artificial intelligence that produces autonomous systems that are capable of learning without being specifically programmed by a human.
A computer program developed for machine learning purposes has a built-in algorithm that allows it to learn from data input, and to evolve and make future decisions that may be either directed or independent. When applied to art, music and literary works, machine learning algorithms are actually learning from input provided by programmers. They learn from these data to generate a new piece of work, making independent decisions throughout the process to determine what the new work looks like. An important feature for this type of artificial intelligence is that while programmers can set parameters, the work is actually generated by the computer program itself – referred to as a neural network – in a process akin to the thought processes of humans.
Creating works using artificial intelligence could have very important implications for copyright law. Traditionally, the ownership of copyright in computer-generated works was not in question because the program was merely a tool that supported the .process, very much like a pen and paper. Creative works qualify for copyright protection if they are original, with most definitions of originality requiring a human author.
AGENTS OF DIVERSITY AND SOCIAL JUSTICE: LIBRARIANS AND SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION by Charlotte Roh and Harrison Inefukuhttps://repository.usfca.edu/librarian/8/
This chapter considers diversity broadly to mean a variety of perspectives, whether grounded in race, gender, sexual orientation, ability, socioeconomic status, or disciplinary study. It begins with a description of the current environment of scholarly communication, looking at the demographics and state of affairs in academia, publishing, and librarianship, including how biases present in all three fields affect scholarly communication. It then moves to a consideration of how librarians and library publishing programs can transform scholarly communication. By adopting a social justice perspective–actively working against ignorance and indifference to reduce systematic biases and injustice in academia, publishing, and librarianship- academic libraries can make their collections and products more reflective of the breadth of knowledge and experiences found in society and make their processes more welcoming to a diversity of participants.
JLSC BOARD EDITORIAL 2018 by Gail Clement, Nicky Agate, Samantha Searle, Danny Kingsley, and Micah Vandegrifthttp://doi.org/10.7710/2162-3309.2261
The current scholarly communication landscape is populated by a variety of actors and powered by an ever-increasing array of complementary and competitive systems for the production, publication, and distribution of scholarship. Recent years have also seen increasing numbers of proposals to recast these systems in ways that better align with the needs and values of the academy and its scholars. In this editorial, members of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication consider the present environment and contemplate the future of academy-owned and -supported scholarly communication, as well as the role of libraries in that future.